Timothy C. Hain, MD • Page last modified: August 24, 2020
Latent nystagmus (LN) is a variant of congenital nystagmus although some authors prefer to reserve the term congenital nystagmus for other variants. It is mainly encountered in persons with congenital strabismus (specifically esotropia) and amblyopia. In the most common form, the nystagmus appears only when one eye is covered. When both eyes are viewing, no nystagmus is seen. This is the reason why it is called "latent" nystagmus. It can be recognized because the eyes always move with their slow-phase towards the nose for the viewing eye. In other words, the direction of the nystagmus in both eyes changes with the viewing eye.
Below is LN recorded with a VENG system. There is RB with right eye viewing, and LB with left eye viewing.
|REV SN||LEV SN|
Here is smooth pursuit, that shows the characteristic "back-up" saccades when the pursuit is "riding" the slow phase. This varies according to the viewing eye.
|REV Pursuit -- note "backup saccade" for pursuit going to the L||LEV Pursuit. Note "backup saccades" for pursuit going to the R.|
OPK asymmetries are remarkable in LN. This can be seen at the bedside with a simple hand-held drum. It is not subtle.
|REV OKN -- Good OKN when it rides the nystagmus, nothing in other direction.||LEV OKN, everything is flipped.|
Usually saccades are not much affected, and the vertical system is not affected either.
Latent nystagmus can be very confusing to people attempting to do an ENG. The eyes may jump left or right seemingly at random, and even worse, the unfavored eye commonly deviates to one side depending on which eye is viewing. The author has encountered interesting situations where patients with latent nystagmus have gone unrecognized by otherwise quite competent neurotologists and neuro-ophthalmologists. This is rather silly as all it really takes is thinking of the diagnosis in someone with eyes that are not quite aligned, and then checking to see which way the eyes jump when one eye or the other is covered.
In a person with a strong latent nystagmus, it can be difficult to make much of anything out of the ENG. It is also a source of potentially embarassing blunders.The author has encountered patients who were misdiagnosed by ENT doctors as having more serious conditions (such as a perilymph fistula), because the otherwise quite expert examiner simply did not recognize a strong latent nystagmus.
There are a few variants of latent nystagmus.
The most common variant of latent nystagmus is difficult to see with both eyes viewing, and becomes apparent only when one or the other eye is blocked. This is just called "latent nystagmus".
Manifest latent nystagmus is latent nystagmus that can be seen even with both eyes viewing. MLN can be acquired, presumably due to a change in the eye that one habitually views. (Dell'Osso et al. 1979).This is unusual compared to regular LN.
In voluntary latent nystagmus, people purposefully view out of either eye, and thus make their eyes jump in either direction at will. This is usually encountered in malingerers trying to convince their doctor to sign disabilty papers or get them out of military service. Obviously, common only in situations where there is something to gain by pretending to be sick.
Dissociated vertical deviation or DVD is a vertical strabismus characterized by a slow upward rotation of one eye without movement of the other. We don't see this very much.
Often persons with latent nystagmus develop a torsional deviation to their eye when they look away from center, which has to be corrected when they return fixation to center. This can be a way of spotting latent nystagmus using video frenzel goggles, during the saccade test. This is common.
LN is a central nystagmus. The eyes jump according to the intent to view. A person with LN can control the direction of eye jumping (with some practice) through an act of will (van Vliet, 1972).
It is likely caused by a "dying back" of central neurons, due to lack of binocular viewing in infancy. As the neurons are no longer there, LN is not "curable".
Gabapentin is often useful in reducing the speed of congenital nystagmus. Gabapentin increases an inhitory neurotransmitter used in oculomotor function. We nearly always offer the option of taking gabapentin to patients with LN in our clinic setting in Chicago. In theory, similar drugs (such as Lyrica) would work too.